Sandstone is a classic sedimentary rock comprising mainly of minerals that are formed from sand. This stone gains its distinctive formation throughout centuries of sand deposits forming in rivers, on the ocean floor, or lakes. All of these elements combine with minerals like calcite or quartz and compress over time. The pressure causes the minerals to come together and form sandstone.
The Process of Sandstone Formation
Layers of sand first amass due to the sedimentation process. The particles settle within the fluid and rest against some barricades either from air/water. The stone becomes cemented by the excessive pressure precipitated between the sand grains.
This stone is formed from the sands of older rocks that get fragmented over time. It goes to create a stone that contains sand in the range of 1/16thmm-2 mm. Millions and millions of these fine grains of sand make up a sandstone block, and the effect of compression helps form this superb stone.
Sand is the most common component in sandstone, and that’s’ where it derives its name. But matrix cement and other similar materials may also often be present in the sandstone. The cement in the stone is generally comprised of calcium carbonate, iron oxide, or quartz.
If it holds excessive amounts of cement, it affects the quality of this natural stone. Sandstone can be created where the conditions are suitable for its formation, and as mentioned, this occurs mostly in lakes, rivers, beaches, desert dunes, and the ocean floor.
Variations of Sandstone
Sandstone has many natural variations in tone, shade, grain, and colour. Some of the stones have specific oxidising properties while some others may have unchanging banding. It can be found throughout the world, and large deposits of sandstone are present in the US and South Africa (where the stone is found in eight different varieties). Germany has the most sandstone deposit locations in the world.
Even Australia has massive deposits of sandstone. We boast an enormous variety of colours and textures and the best quality of sandstone. If you want to use this fantastic natural element in your next interior or landscape project, feel free to call Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.
Sandstone is a rock of classic origin (unlike organic elements like coal and chalk, or chemical-based elements like Jasper and Gypsum). It is formed from cemented grains that might either be fragments of some pre-existing rocks or could be mono-minerally crystals as well. The cement that binds the grains together is generally silica, clay and calcite.
The grain sizes in the sands are in in the 0.1 mm to 2 mm range and rocks and clays with smaller grain sizes, including shales and siltstones, are called argillaceous sediments. The ones with much larger grain sizes including conglomerates & breccias and are called rudaceous sediments.
What Affects The Formation Of Sandstone?
The environment where the sand is deposited is vital in determining the specific characteristics ad qualities of the resulting sandstones. In finer detail, these include its composition, grain size, and sorting and composition. In more general detail, it consists of the rock sedimentary structures and geometry. The significant environments of deposition may be divided between:
- Marine– Deltas, Tidal flats. Shoreface & Beach sands
- Terrestrial- Alluvial fans, Deserts (dunes & ergs), Glacial outwash, Lakes and Rivers (levees, channel sands, point bars) sand waves, Offshore bars and Storm deposits (tempestites) as well as Turbidites (submarine fans and channels)
The Formation Of Sandstone Involves Two Basic Stages:
- First, layers of sand accumulate as the result of the sedimentation, that occurs either from the air in desert settings or from water in sea, lakes, streams, or lakes. Typically, the deposition occurs when the sand settles out from suspension- when it ceases to be bounced/rolled along the ground surface or the bottom of a water body.
- Once all the sand has accumulated, it starts getting compacted due to the pressure from the overlying deposits. It slowly gets cemented due to the process of precipitation of minerals within the pores or spaces between the sand grains.
Calcium carbonate and silica are the most common cementing materials that are generally derived either from the alteration of the sand after it gets buried or from dissolution. The colours will usually be yellow/tan (from a blend of dark amber feldspar content in the sand or clear quartz).
For more information on which type of rock sandstone is, feel free to contact Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.
Sandstone is a widely used building material and has been popular in various structures since ancient times. This relatively soft material is easy to carve, and many structures across the world are constructed using this material. It’s useful in interior and exterior settings and as well as for creating decorative elements such as ornamental statues and fountains etc.
Sandstone is recognised for its resilience, slip-resistant properties and durability. It can withstand the harshest climates and enhances the appeal and value of a property over time. Many people are aware that pavers are made of sandstone. But this fantastic material is found in other forms like mini slabs, mosaic pieces, full slabs and tiles too.
There is a distinct masonry advantage to sandstone as it’s straightforward to cut, making it ideal for use in a variety of projects. Depending on the combination of rock fragments, the stone may have a variety of colours ranging from red, brown, and grey to nearly black or white.
Exterior Applications of Sandstone
As a building & landscaping stone, sandstone has a classic appeal. It is used in brick pavers on walkways, driveways, patios, decks and various other outdoor applications. As an exterior feature, Australian sandstone has a classical grandeur and reliable quality.
It is slip-resistant and has a natural warmth which makes it perfect for paving, exterior facades, water features and more. Landscapers, stonemasons, architects and contractors often use this material in their projects. It is used extensively in the construction of features such as pool surrounds, garden edging, finished capping, cladding etc.
Interior Applications of Sandstone
The material has a range of indoor applications in specific architectural styles. Houses built in the Spanish Colonial, Southwest, and rustic styles look sharp with sandstone fireplace surrounds, flooring, countertops, and various other features. The stone also creates a superb interior living environment.
It is a thermally neutral stone that remains at ambient temperatures. Unlike many artificial materials, sandstone won’t “overreact” too cold or heat and doesn’t deteriorate due to thermal contraction and expansion. As you can see, sandstone has many unique properties that make it an excellent inclusion for indoor and outdoor applications.
For more information on sandstone applications or any other queries, feel free to contact Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.
In most cases, sandstone is composed of feldspar or quartz. This is mainly because these minerals are resistant to the weathering process. Similar to uncemented sand, as a result of impurities in the minerals, sandstone can be of any colour.
A few of the most common colours include red, tan, yellow, white, pink, brown, red, grey, or black. Sandstone beds, for the most part, form visible cliffs as well as other topographic features. Certain regions are often identified with the colour of their sandstone.
When property owners are using sandstone in their projects, they may want it to have a specific colour as well as texture. These aspects would be based on the aesthetic they want to create in a particular space.
There are several kinds of sandstone surface textures, they include:
This texture gives a flat to low sheen gloss. You can also select the level of gloss based on your requirements. Although this surface is smooth, it is highly porous. The textures are primarily used in high traffic buildings. However, as a result of its open pores, these honed floors need to be protected with a stone guard penetrating sealer. Polished stone colours are far more vibrant that honed stone colours.
2. Polished Surface
This type of texture is primarily a reflection of polished crystals that help bring out vibrant colours and grains of natural stone. Polishing bricks and powders are used during fabrication to bring out the shine on these surfaces.
There’s close to zero porosity while polishing the surface. This helps emphasise the high levels of colour, texture, and structure. Besides, this “closed pore” finish increases the resistance of the stone to external agents. Several protective treatments can be used to increase resilience, and are most often applied to marble, granite, as well as other rocks that have a high degree of crystallinity.
3. Flamed Surface
This rough surface is achieved as a result of exposure to excessive heat. The crystals begin to pop during the fabrication process, which results in its rough surface. Due to its porous surface, it has to be treated with a protective stone guard. It gives the surface an irregularly textured finish.
4. Sand Blasted
This matte gloss surface is achieved by the pressurised flow and sand and water. The technique involves a coarse-grained airline grit that’s projected at high-pressure onto the surface of the stone. It is often characterised by matte gloss textured finish. The stones present a chromatic and punctuated surface as a result of the pressure applied to the sand.
A few other sandstone textures include:
- Bush Hammered
For more information on sandstone textures or any other services, feel free to contact Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock that consists of grains of minerals, organic materials, and rock. Besides those, it’s also has a cementing material that binds the grains of sand together. The space between the sand grains is occupied by clay-sized particles.
Sandstone is probably one of the most common kinds of sedimentary rock. It is found in sedimentary basins around the world and is mined as a raw material used for manufacturing or for construction purposes.
Sandstone is mainly composed either of quartz or feldspar, primarily because these minerals are resistant to the weathering process. Just like uncemented sand, sandstone comes in a range of colours including shades of yellow, grey, and white, as well as brown, dark to light reds, pink, tan, or even black. The sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs as well as other topographic features. The colour of the stone generally indicates which region it came from.
Also, sandstone rock formations are valuable aquifer and petroleum reservoirs, this is because they allow percolation of water as well as other fluids. They are porous, allowing them to store larger quantities. Sandstone aquifers are much better at filtering out pollutants from the surface that other rock with cracks like limestone.
How Sandstone Gets Formed
Two stages are involved in the formation of sandstone. As a result of sedimentation either from water (lake, stream, or sea) or from the air, layers of sand slowly start accumulating. This is how it’s formed:
- Sedimentation generally occurs when the sand stops rolling or bouncing along the base of a body of water or ground surface.
- Once the sand has accumulated, it converts into sandstone as a result of the pressure of the overlying deposits.
- The precipitation of minerals slowly cements it with pore spaces in between the sand grains.
- Silica and calcium carbonate are two of the most common cementing materials.
- They are often derived from dissolution or even alteration of the sand once it was buried.
- Sandstones are available in a variety of colours. Yellow is a result of clear quartz and the dark amber feldspar content of the sand. A reddish tint that ranges from pink to red (terracotta) is a result of iron oxide.
- More manganese content gives the rock a purplish hue.
For more information on what sandstone is made of or any other queries, feel free to contact Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock that’s composed of several different minerals and rock grains. It got its name from the base that’s formed from sand, and it slowly compacts and cements into large rock structures. Grains of sand can be composed of a variety of rocks and minerals, which is why sandstones are available in wide ranges. Sandstones often consist of feldspar or quartz, mainly because they are the most common minerals on the earth’s surface.
Despite sandstone being composed of incredibly common minerals, it doesn’t mean that its value or visual appeal decreases in any way. Their original environment has a significant impact on the color and appearance of the stone. Sandstones are uniquely distinctive to their region. They are often found in areas that have seen a considerable amount of erosion, like dry desert areas, or even inland seas.
The age of the sandstone and its original environment has an impact on several factors like sedimentary structure, grain size, and composition. It’s why they are always categorized based on the region they were quarried from. They can be further classified based on their mineralogy as well as the texture of the stone.
The Main Types of Sandstone
Sandstone is categorized into three main types based on their variation in composition and cementing material, they include:
- Quartz Sandstone
- Litharenite or lithic sandstone
Every single one of these types of sandstone has some indication of its depositional history. Quartz sandstone suggests a long period in the depositional basin. Feldspar generally weathers quickly, which is why Arkose suggests a short time in the depositional basin. It also indicates an arid climate, steep slopes, rapid erosion, and tectonic activity. Litharenite indicates an arid climate and accelerated erosion.
Although several methods follow a general pattern, geologists have still not agreed on a singular way to categorize sandstone. The classification method allows geologists to determine a few types like quartz arenites that contain over 90% siliceous grains. Lithic arenites have a high proportion of lithic fragments.
For more information on the different types of sandstones, feel free to contact Trstone Mason at 1300 160 327 to discuss details about your project. You can also get in touch with us via this Contact Us form and get a free quote today.